Gabriel Chiodo

Research Interests

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Ozone and climate

Via its modulation of the amount of UV absorption in the stratosphere, ozone provides a crucial chemistry-climate feedback. This feedback can either operate through ozone-induced perturbations in radiative forcing, or dynamical effects on the tropospheric circulation. However, the magnitude of this chemistry-climate feedback remains largely unknown.

Currently, I am developing a new line of research aimed at quantifying this feedback, by assessing the impact of ozone depletion on Antarctic climate (Chiodo et al., 2017), the role of ozone chemistry in modulating the climate sensitivity to solar (Chiodo and Polvani, 2016), and anthropogenic greenhouse-gases (Chiodo and Polvani, 2017). I have also performed a model inter-comparison of the ozone response to CO2 forcing (Chiodo et al., 2018). Most recently, I have co-authored a study revealing that ozone interactions largely modulate temperature extremes in the polar stratosphere (Rieder et al., 2019).

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Solar variability and its effects on climate

Variations in the Sun's output, either on decadal (the 11-year sunspot cycle) or on millennium (Maunder Minimum) time scales, can have a profound effect on the climate system. However, an accurate understanding of how the atmosphere responds to irradiance changes is still elusive (see review paper by Gray et al., 2010)

My research aims to improve our understanding of the effects of solar variability on climate. I quantified the portion of decadal stratospheric variability that can be unambiguously attributed to solar variability (see Chiodo et al., 2014). I have also explored the possible effects of a future solar minimum on boreal winter projections in the Northern Hemisphere (Chiodo et al., 2016). Most notably, I have revisited the link between North Atlantic climate and solar variability; this research revealed that quasi-decadal variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are due to internal variability, and not the solar cycle, in contrast to a large body of literature claiming a solar/NAO link (see Chiodo et al., 2019).

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The atmospheric energy budget and climate feedbacks

A precise knowledge of the energy fluxes on the Earth’s surface and of horizontal transports within the atmosphere is essential in understanding the dynamics of the present climate, as well as the processes driving climatic changes in the past and future. To date, accurate budget evaluations are feasible due to the improvement of the global observational network. However, my past research revealed homogeneity issues in state-of-the-art reanalysis products, when these are used to compute long-term atmospheric energy budgets (Chiodo and Haimberger, 2010).

Changes in energy fluxes are also the primary pathway for feedback processes driving climate change both globally and locally. Currently, I am involved in research activities investigating the time-dependency of feedbacks, and their role in causing Arctic Amplification. Recently, I have co-authored a study revealing the importance of the stratospheric water vapor feedback (Banerjee, et al., 2019).